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سؤال چند گزینه‌ای

Multiple-Choice Question

[Note: This is an extract from an Academic Reading passage on the subject of government subsidies to farmers. The text preceding this extract explained how subsidies can lead to activities which cause uneconomical and irreversible changes to the environment.]

All these activities may have damaging environmental impacts.  For example, land clearing for agriculture is the largest single cause of deforestation; chemical fertilisers and pesticides may contaminate water supplies; more intensive farming and the abandonment of fallow periods tend to exacerbate soil erosion; and the spread of monoculture and use of high-yielding varieties of crops have been accompanied by the disappearance of old varieties of food plants which might have provided some insurance against pests or diseases in future.  Soil erosion threatens the productivity of land in both rich and poor countries.  The United States, where the most careful measurements have been done, discovered in 1982 that about one-fifth of its farmland was losing topsoil at a rate likely to diminish the soil’s productivity.  The country subsequently embarked upon a program to convert 11 per cent of its cropped land to meadow or forest.  Topsoil in India and China is vanishing much faster than in America.

Government policies have frequently compounded the environmental damage that farming can cause.  In the rich countries, subsidies for growing crops and price supports for farm output drive up the price of land.  The annual value of these subsidies is immense: about $250 billion, or more than all World Bank lending in the 1980s.  To increase the output of crops per acre, a farmer’s easiest option is to use more of the most readily available inputs: fertilisers and pesticides.  Fertiliser use doubled in Denmark in the period 1960-1985 and increased in The Netherlands by 150 per cent.  The quantity of pesticides applied has risen too: by 69 per cent in 1975-1984 in Denmark, for example, with a rise of 115 per cent in the frequency of application in the three years from 1981.

In the late 1980s and early 1990s some efforts were made to reduce farm subsidies.  The most dramatic example was that of New Zealand, which scrapped most farm support in 1984.  A study of the environmental effects, conducted in 1993, found that the end of fertiliser subsidies had been followed by a fall in fertiliser use (a fall compounded by the decline in world commodity prices, which cut farm incomes).  The removal of subsidies also stopped land-clearing and over-stocking, which in the past had been the principal causes of erosion.  Farms began to diversify.  The one kind of subsidy whose removal appeared to have been bad for the environment was the subsidy to manage soil erosion.

In less enlightened countries, and in the European Union, the trend has been to reduce rather than eliminate subsidies, and to introduce new payments to encourage farmers to treat their land in environmentally friendlier ways, or to leave it fallow.  It may sound strange but such payments need to be higher than the existing incentives for farmers to grow food crops.  Farmers, however, dislike being paid to do nothing.  In several countries they have become interested in the possibility of using fuel produced from crop residues either as a replacement for petrol (as ethanol) or as fuel for power stations (as biomass).  Such fuels produce far less carbon dioxide than coal or oil, and absorb carbon dioxide as they grow.  They are therefore less likely to contribute to the greenhouse effect.  But they are rarely competitive with fossil fuels unless subsidised – and growing them does no less environmental harm than other crops.

  1.  Research completed in 1982 found that in the United States soil erosion

 

  1.    a) reduced the productivity of farmland by 20 per cent.

  2.    b) was almost as severe as in India and China.

  3.    c)  was causing significant damage to 20 per cent of farmland.

  4.    d) could be reduced by converting cultivated land to meadow or forest

    1. By the mid-1980s, farmers in Denmark

    2.  

    3.  a) used 50 per cent less fertiliser than Dutch farmers.

    4.  b) used twice as much fertiliser as they had in 1960.

    5.  c) applied fertiliser much more frequently than in 1960.

    6.  d) more than doubled the amount of pesticide they used in just 3 years.

  1. Which one of the following increased in New Zealand after 1984?

  2.  

  1. a) farm incomes

  1. b) use of fertilizer

  1. c) over-stocking

  1. d) farm diversification

Answers:

  1.  ۱- C
  2.  ۲- B
  3.  ۳- D

 

توضیح: جهت پاسخ به سؤالات چند گزینه‌ای باید در ابتدا بر اساس کلمات کلیدی و با اسکن کردن متن، محدوده تقریبی اطلاعات داده شده در متن را یافت (پاراگراف) و سپس بخش مربوطه و یکی دو جمله قبل و بعد آن را با دقت مطالعه نمود. برای مثال، برای پاسخ به سؤال اول فوق اول و جهت شناسایی محل اطلاعات مربوط به سؤال، با نگاه به کلمات کلیدی این سؤال (۱۹۸۲، United States soil erosion)، می‌توان فهمید که باید به پاراگراف اول مراجعه کرد (بخشی که زیر آن خط کشی شده است). بعد از مطالعه دقیق می‌توان از روش حذف گزینه‌های نادرست استفاده کرد (معمولا دو گزینه را می‌توان به آسانی حذف کرد). در پاسخ به سؤال اول، گزینه‌های B و D حذف می‌شوند؛ B به این دلیل که صراحتا در متن گفته شده است که وضعیت در چین و هند وخیم تر از آمریکا است و D با توجه به متن نادرست است. بعد از خواندن دقیق جملات مشخص شده می‌توان به گزینه درست C دست یافت. در پاسخنامه باید حرف مربوطه به گزینه صحیح در مقابل شماره سؤال نوشته شود.

سؤالات چند گزینه‌ ای به ترتیب اطلاعات ارائه شده در متن هستند؛ بنابراین، جهت یافتن پاسخ سؤال دوم باید از بعد از بخش مربوط به سؤال اول یعنی از  پاراگراف دوم به دنبال پاسخ باشیم و دیگر نیازی به چک کردن مطالب قبل از آن نیست. توجه به این نکته در مدیریت زمان اهمیت بسیاری دارد.

درست، غلط، و اطلاعاتی در متن داده نشده است

 True, False, Not Given Question

General Training Reading sample task – Identifying information

Read the text below and answer Questions 1-8.

London to Brighton Bike Ride

The start

The bike ride starts at Clapham Common tube station.

  •    – Your Start Time is indicated by the colour of your body number in this pack. It is also printed on the address label of the envelope. Please arrive no earlier than 30 minutes before that time.
  •   – We allocate an equal number of cyclists for each Start Time to ensure a steady flow. Please keep to the time you’ve been given so we can keep to our schedule and avoid delaying other riders and prevent ‘bunching’ further down the route.
  •    – An Information Point, toilets and refreshment stands will be open from very early in the day.
  •  

Ride carefully

We put together as many facilities as possible to help ensure you have a troublefree day. But we also rely on you to ride safely and with due consideration for other cyclists and road users. Although many roads are closed to oncoming traffic, this is not always the case and you should be aware of the possibility that there could be vehicles coming in the opposite direction. Please do not attempt reckless overtaking whilst riding – remember it is NOT a race.

Follow all instructions

Every effort is made to ensure that the route is well signed and marshalled. Please obey all directions from police and marshals on the route. If you hear a motorcycle marshal blow his/her whistle three times, move left.

 Wear a helmet

Every year we are delighted to see more riders wearing protective helmets, but we would like to see every cyclist on the ride wearing one. More than half of reported injuries in cycling accidents are to the head, and a helmet gives the best protection when the head hits the ground.

Attracting assistance

If you have an accident, ask a marshal for help; they are in contact with the support/emergency services. To call for help from our motorcycle marshals, give a ‘thumbs down’ signal. The marshal will do all he/she can to help, providing he/she is not already going to a more serious accident. If a motorcycle marshal slows down to help you, but you have just stopped for a rest and don’t need help, please give a ‘thumbs up’ signal and he/she will carry on. Remember – thumbs down means ‘I need help’.

In case of breakdown

Refer to your route map and make your way to a Mechanics Point. Mechanical assistance is free when you show your Rider Identity Card; you just pay for the parts.

Refreshment stops

Look out for these along the route. Most are organised by voluntary clubs and their prices give you real value for money. They are also raising money for their local communities and the British Heart Foundation, so please give them your support.

Rain or shine – be prepared

In the event of very bad weather, watch out for signs to wet weather stations en route. Good waterproofs, like a cycle cape, are essential. Our first aid staff can only supply bin liners and by the time you get one you may be very wet. However, the English summer is unpredictable – it may also be hot, so don’t forget the sun protection cream as well!

If you have to drop out

We will try to pick up your bike for you on the day. Call Bike Events (01225 310859) no more than two weeks after the ride to arrange collection. Sorry, we cannot guarantee this service nor can we accept liability for any loss or damage to your bike. Bike Events will hold your bike for three months, after which it may be disposed of. You will be charged for all costs incurred in returning your cycle.

  1. Do the following statements agree with the information given in the text?

    In boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet, write:

    TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

    FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

    NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

             ۱-  You should not arrive more than half an hour before your allocated starting time.

             ۲ – Your Rider Identity Card will be sent to you before the event.

             ۳-  Some roads may have normal traffic flow on them.

             ۴- Helmets are compulsory for all participants.

             ۵-  Refreshments are free to all participants during the ride.

             ۶- If you need a rest you must get off the road.

             ۷- First aid staff can provide cycle capes.

             ۸- Bike Events will charge you for the return of your bike.

Answers:

1 TRUE

2 NOT GIVEN

3 TRUE

4 FALSE

5 FALSE

6 NOT GIVEN

7 FALSE

8 TRUE

توضیح: این نوع سؤالات توانایی افراد را در تشخیص اطلاعات و جزئیات مشخص داده شده در متن می‌سنجند و در قالب جملاتی هستند که باید درستی و یا نادرستی آن‌ها بر اساس متن چک شود. استراتژی مناسب برای پاسخ به این گونه سؤالات بهتر است بدین صورت باشد که در ابتدا هر سؤال خوانده شود و واژگان کلیدی مشخص شوند. سپس، با استفاده از کلمات کلیدی  و اسکن کردن متن محل مربوطه در متن را یافته و به دقت خوانده شود تا به این تشخیص برسیم که جمله مورد نظر با توجه به متن درست، غلط و یا اصلا در متن  به آن اشاره نشده است. این نوع سؤالات به ترتیب اطلاعات داده شده در متن آورده شده و بنابراین برای پاسخ دادن نیز باید یکی پس از دیگری اقدام کرد. در پاسخنامه باید در مقابل هر یک از سؤالات باید یکی ازکلمات True, False, Not Given که پاسخ آن سؤال است، نوشته شود (همان‌طور که پاسخ سؤالات فوق داده شده است).

لازم به توضیح است که سؤالات Yes, No, Not Given Question  یا همان “بله، خیر، در متن داده نشده” نیز  در فرمت و ظاهر همانند سؤالات Question True, False, Not Given هستند با این تفاوت که داوطلبان باید با توجه به متن نقطه نظر نویسنده را تأیید یا رد کنند. بنابراین برای پاسخگویی به آن‌ها نیز می‌توان از استراتژی یکسانی استفاده کرد.

مطابقت دادن اطلاعات

Matching Information Question

General Training Reading sample task – Matching information

Questions 1 – ۸

Look at the five advertisements, A-E.

  1. Which advertisement mentions the following?

    Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet.

    NB You may use any letter more than once.

    1 up-to-date teaching systems

    2 that the institution has been established for a significant time

    3 examination classes

    4 that arrangements can be made for activities outside class

    5 the availability of courses for school students

    6 language teaching for special purposes

    7 a wide variety of language choices

    8 evening classes

۱ B

2 E

3 E

4 C

5 D

6 B

7 A

8 D

توضیح: در این نوع سؤال، به شما چند پاراگراف یا بخش که با حروف الفبا مشخص شده‌اند، داده می شود مانند سؤال فوق که تعدادی بریده تبلیغات با حروف از هم تفکیک شده‌اند.  هشت سؤال نیز داده شده است که در واقع هر کدام یک ویژگی یا نکته‌ای مربوط به یکی از تبلیغات است. داوطلبان باید تشخیص دهند که به هر مورد در کدام تبلیغ اشاره شده است. برای مثال، سؤال اول متن فوق (up-to-date teaching systems) مربوط به تبلیغ B است که تبلیغ یک مرکز آموزش زبان است. در پاسخنامه باید حرف پاسخ در مقابل شماره سؤال نوشته شود. ممکن است چندین سؤال مربوط به یک تبلیغ باشد؛ همان طور که در اینجا سؤال ششم نیز (language teaching for special purposes ) نیز مربوط به این تبلیغ است.

 

مطابقت دادن عناوین با بخش‌ها/پاراگراف‌های متن

Matching Headings Question

Academic Reading sample task – Matching headings 

Sample Passage  has six sections, A-F.

The role of governments in environmental management is difficult but inescapable.  Sometimes, the state tries to manage the resources it owns, and does so badly.  Often, however, governments act in an even more harmful way.  They actually subsidise the exploitation and consumption of natural resources.  A whole range of policies, from farm-price support to protection for coal-mining, do environmental damage and (often) make no economic sense.  Scrapping them offers a two-fold bonus: a cleaner environment and a more efficient economy.  Growth and environmentalism can actually go hand in hand, if politicians have the courage to confront the vested interest that subsidies create.

Section B

No activity affects more of the earth’s surface than farming.  It shapes a third of the planet’s land area, not counting Antarctica, and the proportion is rising.  World food output per head has risen by 4 per cent between the 1970s and 1980s mainly as a result of increases in yields from land already in cultivation, but also because more land has been brought under the plough.  Higher yields have been achieved by increased irrigation, better crop breeding, and a doubling in the use of pesticides and chemical fertilisers in the 1970s and 1980s.

Section C

All these activities may have damaging environmental impacts.  For example, land clearing for agriculture is the largest single cause of deforestation; chemical fertilisers and pesticides may contaminate water supplies; more intensive farming and the abandonment of fallow periods tend to exacerbate soil erosion; and the spread of monoculture and use of high-yielding varieties of crops have been accompanied by the disappearance of old varieties of food plants which might have provided some insurance against pests or diseases in future.  Soil erosion threatens the productivity of land in both rich and poor countries.  The United States, where the most careful measurements have been done, discovered in 1982 that about one-fifth of its farmland was losing topsoil at a rate likely to diminish the soil’s productivity.  The country subsequently embarked upon a program to convert 11 per cent of its cropped land to meadow or forest.  Topsoil in India and China is vanishing much faster than in America.

Section D

Government policies have frequently compounded the environmental damage that farming can cause.  In the rich countries, subsidies for growing crops and price supports for farm output drive up the price of land.  The annual value of these subsidies is immense: about $250 billion, or more than all World Bank lending in the 1980s.  To increase the output of crops per acre, a farmer’s easiest option is to use more of the most readily available inputs: fertilisers and pesticides.  Fertiliser use doubled in Denmark in the period 1960-1985 and increased in The Netherlands by 150 per cent.  The quantity of pesticides applied has risen too: by 69 per cent in 1975-1984 in Denmark, for example, with a rise of 115 per cent in the frequency of application in the three years from 1981.

In the late 1980s and early 1990s some efforts were made to reduce farm subsidies.  The most dramatic example was that of New Zealand, which scrapped most farm support in 1984.  A study of the environmental effects, conducted in 1993, found that the end of fertiliser subsidies had been followed by a fall in fertiliser use (a fall compounded by the decline in world commodity prices, which cut farm incomes).  The removal of subsidies also stopped land-clearing and over-stocking, which in the past had been the principal causes of erosion.  Farms began to diversify.  The one kind of subsidy whose removal appeared to have been bad for the environment was the subsidy to manage soil erosion.

In less enlightened countries, and in the European Union, the trend has been to reduce rather than eliminate subsidies, and to introduce new payments to encourage farmers to treat their land in environmentally friendlier ways, or to leave it fallow.  It may sound strange but such payments need to be higher than the existing incentives for farmers to grow food crops.  Farmers, however,  dislike being paid to do nothing.  In several countries they have become interested in the possibility of using fuel produced from crop residues either as a replacement for petrol (as ethanol) or as fuel for power stations (as biomass).  Such fuels produce far less carbon dioxide than coal or oil, and absorb carbon dioxide as they grow.  They are therefore less likely to contribute to the greenhouse effect.  But they are rarely competitive with fossil fuelsunless subsidised – and growing them does no less environmental harm than other crops.

Section E

In poor countries, governments aggravate other sorts of damage.  Subsidies for pesticides and artificial fertilisers encourage farmers to use greater quantities than are needed to get the highest economic crop yield.  A study by the International Rice Research Institute of pesticide use by farmers in South East Asia found that, with pest-resistant varieties of rice, even moderate applications of pesticide frequently cost farmers more than they saved.  Such waste puts farmers on a chemical treadmill: bugs and weeds become resistant to poisons, so next year’s poisons must be more lethal.  One cost is to human health.  Every year some 10,000 people die from pesticide poisoning, almost all of them in the developing countries, and another 400,000 become seriously ill.  As for artificial fertilisers, their use world-wide increased by 40 per cent per unit of farmed land between the mid 1970s and late 1980s, mostly in the developing countries.  Overuse of fertilisers may cause farmers to stop rotating crops or leaving their land fallow.  That, in turn, may make soil erosion worse.

Section F

A result of the Uruguay Round of world trade negotiations is likely to be a reduction of 36 per cent in the average levels of farm subsidies paid by the rich countries in 1986-1990.  Some of the world’s food production will move from Western Europe to regions where subsidies are lower or non-existent, such as the former communist countries and parts of the developing world.  Some environmentalists worry about this outcome.  It will undoubtedly mean more pressure to convert natural habitat into farmland.  But it will also have many desirable environmental effects.  The intensity of farming in the rich world should decline, and the use of chemical inputs will diminish.  Crops are more likely to be grown in the environments to which they are naturally suited.  And more farmers in poor countries will have the money and the incentive to manage their land in ways that are sustainable in the long run.  That is important.  To feed an increasingly hungry world, farmers need every incentive to use their soil and water effectively and efficiently.

Choose the correct heading for sections A-D and F from the list of headings below.

Write the correct number i-ix in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.

             List of headings
  i The probable effects of the new international trade agreement
  ii The environmental impact of modern farming
  iii Farming and soil erosion
    iv The effects of government policy in rich countries
    v Governments and management of the environment
    vi The effects of government policy in poor countries
    vii Farming and food output
    viii The effects of government policy on food output
    ix The new prospects for world trade

                                 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

۱ Section A

 ۲ Section B

 ۳ Section C

 ۴ Section D

Example Section E vi

5 Section F

۱ v

2 vii

3 ii

4 iv

5 i

توضیح: در این نوع سؤال نیز همانند سؤال قبلی، لیستی از گزینه‌هایی که در واقع عناوین برای بخش‌های مختلف یک متن هستند داده می‌شود و از شما خواسته می‌شود تا برای هر بخش عنوان مناسب آن را مشخص کرده و حرف رومی آن عنوان را در مقابل شماره سؤال در پاسخنامه بنویسید. در متن فوق، ۵ سؤال و ۸ عنوان (به جز موردی که برای مثال انجام شده است) داده شده است و بنابران ۳ عنوان اضافی است.  این نوع سؤال توانایی شما را در تشخیص main idea می سنجد. استراتژی مناسب برای پاسخگویی به این نوع سؤالات بدین صورت است که در ابتدا باید به لیست عناوین نگاهی انداخته و زیر کلمات کلیدی آن خط کشید. عنوانی که برای مثال انجام شده و برای یک پاراگراف انتخاب شده است را باید خط بزنید. سپس هر پاراگراف یا بخش به طور سریع خوانده شود (اسکیم کردن) تا با پی بردن به نکته‌ی اصلی پاراگراف، بتوان عنوان مناسب را تشخیص داد. بعد از خواندن هر پاراگراف به سراغ لیست عناوین رفته و عنوان مناسب را انتخاب و حرف رومی مربوط به آن‌ را در پاسخنامه مقابل شماره سؤال مورد نظر بنویسید.

 مچ کردن (مطابقت) ویژگی‌ها

Matching features Question

General Training Reading sample task – Matching features

[Note: This is an extract from a General Training Reading text on the subject of the history of cinema. The text preceding this extract gave a general overview.]

Although French, German, American and British pioneers have all been credited with the invention of cinema, the British and the Germans played a relatively small role in its worldwide exploitation. It was above all the French, followed closely by the Americans, who were the most passionate exporters of the new invention, helping to start cinema in China, Japan, Latin America and Russia. In terms of artistic development it was again the French and the Americans who took the lead, though in the years before the First World War, Italy, Denmark and Russia also played a part.

In the end it was the United States that was to become, and remain, the largest single market for films. By protecting their own market and pursuing a vigorous export policy, the Americans achieved a dominant position on the world market by the start of the First World War. The centre of filmmaking had moved westwards, to Hollywood, and it was films from these new Hollywood studios that flooded onto the world’s film markets in the years after the First World War, and have done so ever since. Faced with total Hollywood domination, few film industries proved competitive. The Italian industry, which had pioneered the feature film with spectacular films like “Quo Vadis?” (۱۹۱۳) and “Cabiria” (۱۹۱۴), almost collapsed. In Scandinavia, the Swedish cinema had a brief period of glory, notably with powerful epic films and comedies. Even the French cinema found itself in a difficult position. In Europe, only Germany proved industrially capable, while in the new Soviet Union and in Japan, the development of the cinema took place in conditions of commercial isolation.

Hollywood took the lead artistically as well as industrially. Hollywood films appealed because they had better constructed narratives, their special effects were more impressive, and the star system added a new dimension to screen acting. If Hollywood did not have enough of its own resources, it had a great deal of money to buy up artists and technical innovations from Europe to ensure its continued dominance over present or future competition.

From early cinema, it was only American slapstick comedy that successfully developed in both short and feature format. However, during this ‘Silent Film’ era, animation, comedy, serials and dramatic features continued to thrive, along with factual films or documentaries, which acquired an increasing distinctiveness as the period progressed. It was also at this time that the avant-garde film first achieved commercial success, this time thanks almost exclusively to the French and the occasional German film.

Of the countries which developed and maintained distinctive national cinemas in the silent period, the most important were France, Germany and the Soviet Union. Of these, the French displayed the most continuity, in spite of the war and post-war economic uncertainties. The German cinema, relatively insignificant in the pre-war years, exploded on to the world scene after 1919. Yet even they were both overshadowed by the Soviets after the 1917 Revolution. They turned their back on the past, leaving the style of the pre-war Russian cinema to the émigrés who fled westwards to escape the Revolution.

The other countries whose cinemas changed dramatically are: Britain, which had an interesting but undistinguished history in the silent period; Italy, which had a brief moment of international fame just before the war; the Scandinavian countries, particularly Denmark, which played a role in the development of silent cinema quite out of proportion to their small population; and Japan, where a cinema developed based primarily on traditional theatrical and, to a lesser extent, other art forms and only gradually adapted to western influence.

  1. Look at the following statements and the list of countries below.

    Match each statement with the correct country, A-J.

    Write the correct letter, A-J, in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.

    NB You may use any letter more than once.

    1 It helped other countries develop their own film industry.

    2 It was the biggest producer of films.

    3 It was first to develop the ‘feature’ film.

    4 It was responsible for creating stars.

    5 It made the most money from ‘avantgarde’ films.

    6 It made movies based more on its own culture than outside influences.

    7 It had a great influence on silent movies, despite its size.

     

    List of countries

     A France
     B Germany
     C USA
     D Denmark
     E Sweden
     F Japan
     G Russia
     H Italy
     I Britain
    J China

۱ A

2 C

3 H

4 C

5 A

6 F

7 D

توضیح:

این نوع سؤال، حالت دیگری از سؤال‌های جور کردنی یا مطابقت دادن است. در این نوع سؤال لیستی از گزینه‌ها که با حروف الفبا مشخص شده‌اند به شما داده می‌شود (برای مثال لیستی از اسامی افراد نام برده شده در متن یا در مثال فوق که لیستی از اسامی کشورها داده شده است)؛ این گزینه‌ها به ترتیب مطالب داده شده در متن هستند. همانند سؤالات جور کردنی دیگر، سؤالات به صورت جمله می‌باشند. برای پاسخ به هر سؤال باید با توجه به متن یکی از گزینه‌ها را انتخاب نمود و حرف آن را در پاسخنامه مقابل سؤال مورد نظر نوشت. در متن فوق که در مورد تاریخ سینما است، وقایع مربوط به فیلم و سینما در کشورهای مختلف را مورد بررسی قرار داده است. سؤالات در واقع جملاتی هستند مربوط به ویژگی‌ها و وقایع مهم سینما در کشورهای مختلف است که داوطلبان باید مشخص کنند، آن ویژگی مربوط به کدام کشور است. لیست کشورها شامل ۱۰ کشور است و ۷ سؤال وجود دارد. لازم به توضیح است که بعضی از گزینه‌ها ممکن است دو یا چند بار استفاده شود (مانند سؤالات ۱ و ۵ مثال فوق که پاسخ هر دو گزینه‌َ A یا همان کشور فرانسه است) و تبعا گزینه‌های اضافی هم وجود دارند (مانند گزینه‌های  B, E, G, I, J در مثال فوق).

 کامل کردن جمله

Sentence Completion Question

General Training Reading sample task – Sentence completion

[Note: This is an extract from a General Training Reading text on the subject of understanding bee behaviour. The text preceding this extract described Karl von Frisch’s experiments and his conclusions about two bee dances.]

At first, von Frisch thought the bees were responding only to the scent of the food. But what did the third dance mean? And if bees were responding only to the scent, how could they also ‘sniff down’ food hundreds of metres away from the hive*, food which was sometimes downwind? On a hunch, he started gradually moving the feeding dish further and further away and noticed as he did so that the dances of the returning scout bees also started changing. If he placed the feeding dish over nine metres away, the second type of dance, the sickle version, came into play.  But once he moved it past 36 metres, the scouts would then start dancing the third, quite different, waggle dance.

The measurement of the actual distance too, he concluded, was precise. For example, a feeding dish 300 metres away was indicated by 15 complete runs through the pattern in 30 seconds. When the dish was moved to 60 metres away, the number dropped to eleven.

Von Frisch noted something further. When the scout bees came home to tell their sisters about the food source, sometimes they would dance outside on the horizontal entrance platform of the hive, and sometimes on the vertical wall inside. And, depending on where they danced, the straight portion of the waggle dance would point in different directions. The outside dance was fairly easy to decode: the straight portion of the dance pointed directly to the food source, so the bees would merely have to decode the distance message and fly off in that direction to find their food.

But by studying the dance on the inner wall of the hive, von Frisch discovered a remarkable method which the dancer used to tell her sisters the direction of the food in relation to the sun. When inside the hive, the dancer cannot use the sun, so she uses gravity instead. The direction of the sun is represented by the top of the hive wall. If she runs straight up, this means that the feeding place is in the same direction as the sun. However, if, for example, the feeding place is 40º to the left of the sun, then the dancer would run 40º to the left of the vertical line. This was to be the first of von Frisch’s remarkable discoveries. Soon he would also discover a number of other remarkable facts about how bees communicate and, in doing so, revolutionise the study of animal behaviour generally.

* Hive – a ‘house’ for bees; the place where they build a nest and live

 

  1. Complete the sentences below.

    Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the text for each answer.

    Write your answers in boxes 1-3 on your answer sheet.

    1 Von Frisch discovered the difference between dance types by changing the position of the ……………… .

    2 The dance outside the hive points in the direction of the …………… .

    3 The angle of the dance from the vertical shows the angle of the food from the

۱ feeding dish

2 food (source)

3 sun

Words in brackets are optional – they are correct, but not necessary.

توضیح: برای پاسخگویی به این نوع سؤال در ابتدا باید از تعداد کلمه مجاز اطمینان پیدا کرد. در مثال فوق به عبارت ” NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS” توجه کنید که با حروف بزرگ نیز نوشته شده است بدین معنی که پاسخ نباید بیشتر از ۲ کلمه باشد. سپس، اولین جمله را خوانده و به جای خالی دقت کنید و سعی کنید تا حدس بزنید چه کلمه یا کلماتی در جای خالی می تواند قرار بگیرد: نام، شماره و عدد و … . کلمات کلیدی اطراف جای خالی را پیدا کرده و متن را برای یافتن این کلمات یا مترادف و یا پارافریز آن‌ها اسکن کنید تا بتوانید پاسخ سؤال را بیابید. بعد از یافتن پاسخ باید آن را در پاسخنامه در مقابل شماره سؤال بنویسید. دقت کنید که پاسخ باید به لحاظ گرامری به طور صحیح جمله را کامل کند. هم چنین به املای کلمات نیز دقت کنید چرا که اگر کلمه غلط نوشته شود، در واقع پاسخ نیز غلط به حساب میاید و به منزله نگرفتن نمره از آن سؤال است. توجه کنید که از آنجا که پاسخ در داخل متن است، در واقع باید کلمه را کپی کنید و بنابراین فقط باید دقت کنید که کلمه را درست و دقیق کپی کنید.

کامل کردن جدول

Table Completion Question

Academic Reading sample task – Table completion

[Note: This is an extract from an Academic Reading passage on the subject of dung beetles. The text preceding this extract gave some background facts about dung beetles, and went on to describe a decision to introduce non-native varieties to Australia.]

Introducing dung1 beetles into a pasture is a simple process: approximately 1,500 beetles are released, a handful at a time, into fresh cow pats2 in the cow pasture.  The beetles immediately disappear beneath the pats digging and tunnelling and, if they successfully adapt to their new environment, soon become a permanent, self-sustaining part of the local ecology.  In time they multiply and within three or four years the benefits to the pasture are obvious.

Dung beetles work from the inside of the pat so they are sheltered from predators such as birds and foxes.  Most species burrow into the soil and bury dung in tunnels directly underneath the pats, which are hollowed out from within.  Some large species originating from France excavate tunnels to a depth of approximately 30 cm below the dung pat.  These beetles make sausage-shaped brood chambers along the tunnels.  The shallowest tunnels belong to a much smaller Spanish species that buries dung in chambers that hang like fruit from the branches of a pear tree. South African beetles dig narrow tunnels of approximately 20 cm below the surface of the pat.  Some surface-dwelling beetles, including a South African species, cut perfectly-shaped balls from the pat, which are rolled away and attached to the bases of plants.

For maximum dung burial in spring, summer and autumn, farmers require a variety of species with overlapping periods of activity.  In the cooler environments of the state of Victoria, the large French species (2.5 cms long), is matched with smaller (half this size), temperate-climate Spanish species.  The former are slow to recover from the winter cold and produce only one or two generations of offspring from late spring until autumn.  The latter, which multiply rapidly in early spring, produce two to five generations annually.  The South African ball-rolling species, being a sub-tropical beetle, prefers the climate of northern and coastal New South Wales where it commonly works with the South African tunneling species.  In warmer climates, many species are active for longer periods of the year.

Glossary

  1. dung: the droppings or excreta of animals
  2. cow pats: droppings of cows

Complete the table below.

  1. Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.

    Write your answers in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.

    Species

    Size

    Preferred climate

    Complementary species

    Start of active period

    Number of generations per year

    French

    2.5cm

    cool

    Spanish

    Late spring

    1-2

    Spanish

    1.25cm

    ——–1

    ——–2

    ——–3

    South African ball roller

    ——–4

    ——–5

۱ temperate

2 early spring

3 two to five / 2-5

4 sub-tropical

5 South African tunneling/tunnelling

Alternative answers are separated by a slash (/).

توضیح: در این نوع سؤال (کامل کردن جدول) نیز از آنجا که پاسخ در قالب کلمه یا کلماتی است که باید در پاسخنامه نوشته شود، باید به محدودیت تعداد کلمات دقت کرده و آن را رعایت کرد (در صورتی که بیشتر از تعداد مشخص شده نوشته شود، نمره ای به سؤال تعلق نمی‌گیرد). استراتژی مناسب برای پاسخ به این نوع سؤال و سؤالات مشابه (کامل کردن خلاصه، فلو چارت و …) بدین صورت است که در ابتدا با دقت جدول، عناوین، سطر و ستون‌ها و … خوانده و آنالیز شوند. هم‌چنین، به جای خالی و این که در کجا قرار گرفته و چه نوع پاسخی لازم دارد نیز باید دقت کرد. در مثال فوق، سؤال یا جای خالی اول مربوط به نوع مطلوب آب و هوا برای گونه‌های اسپانیایی است. برای پاسخ سؤال/جای خالی دوم نیز باید به دنبال یک دوره زمانی فعال برای گونه‌های اسپانیایی باشیم و بدین ترتیب با آنالیز جدول می‌توان فهمید که در متن باید به دنبال چه گشت.  سپس، بر اساس کلمات کلیدی و عناوین موجود در جدول، باید محل اطلاعات مربوطه در متن را شناسایی کرده و آن قسمت را به دقت مطالعه کرده تا پاسخ را بیابید. مانند سؤال قبلی، در اینجا نیز باید به املا / اسپل صحیح کلمات دقت شود تا درست نوشته شوند

کامل کردن نمودار/ دیاگرام

Diagram Label Completion Question

Academic Reading sample task – Diagram label completion

[Note: This is an extract from an Academic Reading passage on the subject of dung beetles. The text preceding this extract gave some background facts about dung beetles, and went on to describe a decision to introduce non-native varieties to Australia.]

Introducing dung1 beetles into a pasture is a simple process: approximately 1,500 beetles are released, a handful at a time, into fresh cow pats2 in the cow pasture.  The beetles immediately disappear beneath the pats digging and tunnelling and, if they successfully adapt to their new environment, soon become a permanent, self-sustaining part of the local ecology.  In time they multiply and within three or four years the benefits to the pasture are obvious.

Dung beetles work from the inside of the pat so they are sheltered from predators such as birds and foxes.  Most species burrow into the soil and bury dung in tunnels directly underneath the pats, which are hollowed out from within.  Some large species originating from France excavate tunnels to a depth of approximately 30 cm below the dung pat.  These beetles make sausage-shaped brood chambers along the tunnels.  The shallowest tunnels belong to a much smaller Spanish species that buries dung in chambers that hang like fruit from the branches of a pear tree. South African beetles dig narrow tunnels of approximately 20 cm below the surface of the pat.  Some surface-dwelling beetles, including a South African species, cut perfectly-shaped balls from the pat, which are rolled away and attached to the bases of plants.

For maximum dung burial in spring, summer and autumn, farmers require a variety of species with overlapping periods of activity.  In the cooler environments of the state of Victoria, the large French species (2.5 cms long), is matched with smaller (half this size), temperate-climate Spanish species.  The former are slow to recover from the winter cold and produce only one or two generations of offspring from late spring until autumn.  The latter, which multiply rapidly in early spring, produce two to five generations annually.  The South African ball-rolling species, being a sub-tropical beetle, prefers the climate of northern and coastal New South Wales where it commonly works with the South African tunneling species.  In warmer climates, many species are active for longer periods of the year.

Glossary

  1. dung: the droppings or excreta of animals
  2. cow pats: droppings of cows
  1.  Questions 6 – ۸
  2. Label the tunnels on the diagram below using words from the box.
    Write your answers in boxes 6-8 on your answer sheet.

۶ South African

7 French

8 Spanish

توضیح: در این نوع سؤال، داوطلبان باید بخش‌های مختلف یک نمودار یا شکل را کامل کنند (نام‌گذاری یا عنوان دادن). دایاگرام بر اساس توصیف و توضیح داده شده در متن است. لازم به توضیح است که گاهی پاسخ باید از میان لیستی از گزینه‌های انتخاب شود (مانند مثال فوق) و گاهی گزینه‌ای وجود ندارد و شما باید پاسخ را از داخل متن بیابید که در این حالت، به تعداد کلمه مجاز در صورت سؤال اشاره می‌شود. برای پاسخگویی ابتدا باید به دایاگرام و هدینگ‌های نوشته شده در بخش‌های مختلف توجه کرده و بر اساس آن‌ها محل مورد نظر در متن شناسایی شده و بعد آن بخش به دقت خوانده شود و همزمان به دیاگرام نیز توجه کرده تا بتوان به پاسخ رسید. پاسخ باید در پاسخنامه نوشته شود. در این مورد نیز باید دقت زیادی در نوشتن صحیح کلمات داشت.

سؤالات پاسخ کوتاه 

Short-Answer Questions

General Training Reading sample task – Short-answer questions 

IMPORTANT NOTICE: PRODUCT RETURN

Fancy Foods wishes to inform the public that pieces of metal have been found in some jars of Fancy Foods Chicken Curry (Spicy). The batches of the jars involved have numbers from J6617 to J6624. The batch number is printed on the bottom of each jar.

If you have any jars with these batch numbers, please return them (preferably unopened) to the supermarket where you purchased them. You can also return them to the factory (Fancy Foods Retailers, Blacktown). Fancy Foods will pay $10 for each jar returned unopened and $5 for each jar already opened.

No payment will be made for empty jars, which do not need to be returned. However, the Retailing

Manager will be interested to hear from people who have consumed chicken curry from any of the above batch numbers. In particular, it will be helpful if they can give information about the place of purchase of the product.

Jars of Fancy Foods Chicken Curry (Coconut) and Fancy Foods Chicken Curry (Mango) have not been affected and do not need to be returned.

REWARD

Fancy Foods will pay a reward of $10,000 to $50,000 for information which leads to the conviction of any person found guilty of placing metal pieces in its products. If you have such information, please contact the Customer Relations Manager, Fancy Foods Retailers, Blacktown.

  1.  Answer the questions below.

    Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the text for each answer.

    Write your answers in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.

    1 What has been found in some Fancy Foods products?

    2 Where can you find the batch number on the jars?

    3 How much will you receive for an opened jar of contaminated Chicken Curry?

    4 If you have eaten Chicken Curry from a jar with one of the batch numbers listed, whom should you contact?

    5 What is the maximum reward Fancy Foods is offering for information about who contaminated their product?

۱ pieces of metal

2 (on) the bottom

3 $5

4 (the) Retailing Manager

5 $50,000

Words in brackets are optional – they are correct, but not necessary.

توضیح: همان‌طور که از نام آن بر می‌آید، این نوع سؤال پاسخ کوتاه لازم دارد و بنابراین همانند چند سؤال قبلی تعداد کلمات مجاز از قبل مشخص شده و باید رعایت شود. برای پاسخگویی، هر سؤال را خوانده و کلمات کلیدی را مشخص کنید و با استفاده از اسکن و اسکیم کردن در متن به دنبال آن‌ها و یا مترادف آن کلمات بگردید تا بخش مورد نظر برای پاسخ دادن به سؤال را بیابید. آن بخش را به دقت بخوانید تا پاسخ را بیابید. توجه کنید که پاسخ باید دقیقا از خود متن باشد و در واقع آن را در پاسخنامه در مقابل شماره سؤال مورد نظر کپی می‌کنیم. بنابراین باید در نوشتن و اسپل صحیح کلمات نهایت دقت را داشت. در صورت داشتن زمان، می‌توان پاسخ ها را با متن چک کرد تا از درست بودن آن‌ها اطمینان حاصل پیدا کرد.

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